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2013年5月28日火曜日

北“生産性高めろ”勤労者成果によって賃金支給


AP通信の記事の転電 これが広まればかなり革命的だ。

北朝鮮が生産性を高めるために工場と企業所が直接労働者賃金を決めるシステムを4月から導入したとAP通信が27日報道した。


北朝鮮パク・ポンジュ内閣総理の没落と共に埋められた北朝鮮の改革政策が,

彼の復活と共にまた始まったと見られる。
AP通信は北朝鮮社会科学院経済研究所イ・キソン教授との単独インタビューを通して“先月1日から工場主が労働者の賃金を直接決める新しい政策を実施した”と伝えた。

今まで北朝鮮では国家が労働者の賃金を決めるので、個別労働者がいくら熱心に仕事をしても国家が規定した賃金以上は受けられなかった。

り教授は“工場はこれから労働者の成果により賃金を支払う”として“当局に工場投資金を還元した以後に個別工場は技術力向上,工場文化発展そして労働者らの生産性向上などのために収益金を全部国家に出さないで投資金形態で置いておける”と明らかにした。

彼は“新しい措置が施行されている工場ではすでに労働者の賃金引き上げがなされた”として“個別労働者は前よりさらに多い金を儲けられるようになった”と付け加えた。
今回の措置は試験期間を経て,先月1日から施行された。

だが、リ教授は“今回の措置が改革開放を意味するのではない”として“北朝鮮政府が資本主義要素を導入すると性急だと思うな”と区切って話した。

引き続き彼は“生産資源の社会主義的所有方式は私たちの共和国で確かに守られており私たちはこういう方式をずっと守護すること”と明らかにした。

これに先立ち2002年7月北朝鮮は工場企業所の自律性を保障する内容を骨子にした社会主義経済管理改善措置を発表したがこれを主導したパク・ポンジュ総理が保守派らの攻撃を受けながら,失脚して,わずか3,4ヶ月ぶりにうやむやになった。

したがって今回の措置は朴総理が4月総理に復帰しながら,今一度改革案が現実化したと分析される。

一北朝鮮消息筋は27日“まだ地方の工場では具体的な指針を命令受けることも出来ない状態だが,過去にした経験があってなじみがうすいことはない”と話した。

AP EXCLUSIVE: NKorea relaxes controls on salaries 
 

In this Monday, April 9, 2012 photo, North Korean women work in a thread factory in Pyongyang, North Korea. A North Korean economist said that the government introduced new economic management methods in April 2013 that relax state control of workers' salaries. David Guttenfelder / AP Photo

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THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
PYONGYANG, North Korea -- North Korea relaxed state control of salaries last month, a government economist said, outlining a change in policy intended to boost production by giving companies latitude to provide workers with financial incentives.

In an interview with The Associated Press, Ri Ki Song, a professor at the Institute of Economics at North Korea's Academy of Social Sciences in Pyongyang, said enterprises are now allowed to use some of their earnings to pay workers more.

Until recently, most salaries were set by the state. The new policy gives managers of factories and other businesses the right to determine workers' salaries if they are able to improve productivity. The change follows a similar move last year to give managers at North Korean farms more power to make management decisions and to allow farmers to keep any surplus harvest to sell or barter instead of turning them over to the state.

"After repaying the state for its investment, enterprises can set salaries themselves, regardless of salaries fixed by the state, and pay workers according to their performance," Ri said last week. Companies must also put aside funds for investment, continued production, development of technology and cultural activities, he said.

But Ri said the new economic management methods enacted April 1 were not signs that North Korea is adopting a capitalist free market system.

"This is nothing to do with reform and opening," Ri said. "As I've said, the socialist ownership of the means of production is firmly established in our country, and we defend this."

Foreign governments have looked for indications that North Korean leader Kim Jong Un might be open to reform since coming to power in December 2011. North Korea has a per capita GDP of $1,800 per year, according to the U.S. State Department, just a fraction of the living standards in its Northeast Asian neighbors, Japan and South Korea.

Kim, the third generation of his family to lead North Korea since 1948, inherited a nation plagued by chronic food, fuel and power shortages. He has said improving the economy is a priority, acknowledging economic hardship in North Korea and pledging to raise the standard of living.

Kim in a speech in January said the country's most important task is the "building of an economic giant" and called for all of the year's economic undertakings to be aimed "a radical increase in production and stabilizing and improving the people's living standards."

"We should hold fast to the socialist economic system of our own style, steadily improve and perfect the methods of economic management on the principle of encouraging the working masses to fulfill their responsibility and role befitting the masters of production," Kim said.

However, Kim also has made the costly building of a nuclear arsenal a priority at a time when the United Nations says two-thirds of the population is coping with chronic food shortages.

The new policy on salaries went into effect after a trial period, Ri said.

"In the past, the state used to fix standard salaries, which meant you couldn't pay more than a certain amount," he said.

Now, factories and enterprises that perform well will be allowed to raise salaries, Ri said.

"And individual workers who work more can earn more," he said.

Last September, AP quoted farmers as saying new directives aimed at boosting productivity at collective farms give managers more control over decisions on how to farm the land and allow farmers to keep any surplus after they fulfill state-mandated quotas.

By giving farmers incentives to grow more food, North Korea could be starting down the same path as China when it first began experimenting with a market-based economy, analysts said.

Read more here: http://www.miamiherald.com/2013/05/27/3418633/nkorea-relaxes-controls-over-worker.html#storylink=cpy

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